Comitatus Henricus Card. Stuart


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Henry Stuart

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Henry Benedict Mary Clement Thomas Francis Xavier Stuart was born in Rome, March 5, 1725 and was baptized by Benedict XIII (1724-30), from which he received the middle name. Prince of England and Scotland, Duke of York, Cardinal of the Catholic Church, appealed by the Jacobites as Henry IX and I, King of England, Scotland, Ireland and France (1788-1807), Henry was the second son of James Francis Edward Stuart, known as "the Old Pretender". His mother was Maria Clementina Sobieski, daughter of King John III Sobieski of Poland. His brother was Prince Charles Edward Stuart ("Bonnie Prince Charlie"). The English dynasty, who was Catholic, had been established in 1717 in Rome by Pope Clement XI following the approval, in England, the "Bill of Rights", a charter of rights that forbade the kingdom to the Catholic Monarchs or conjugated with a Catholic and after Louis XIV, king of France, revoked the previously granted asylum. In 1747 the Pope made him a cardinal and in 1748 ordained him priest. For the ecclesiastical career, began when he was just 22 years with the election to cardinal by Pope Benedict XIV (1740-1758), Henry had opted also due to family situation.


Undoubtedly motivated by a strong religious feeling - as he demonstrated during his ministry - the failure of the political and military actions undertaken by Stuart in the reconquest of the throne had convinced him to abandon all expectations in this direction to follow, rather, his vocation. This choice of Henry had caused, however, a fracture in the equilibrium of the family, as Charles Edward had accused his younger brother of having left him alone in the pursuit of their cause dynastic.
In 1761, Henry was appointed Bishop of Frascati ("Tusculum"). His work was not confined to the care of his cathedral and other churches or the promotion of charitable activities: the main task of the Cardinal Stuart was the reorganization of the Seminary "Tuscolano". This became possible when in 1770, following the suppression of the Society of Jesus, the institute was brought back to the authority of the bishop of Frascati. 100,000 crowns were spent by the Cardinal for the Seminary: interventions and personal donations directed not only to the organization of community life, but also to the allocation of new furnitures, the restoration of the environment, the arrangement of the library and the typography of the Seminary. In 1803 he was appointed Bishop of Ostia and Velletri and dean of the Sacred College, but continued to live in the episcopal palace of Frascati, where he died on July 13, 1807, having been a cardinal for more than 60 years.


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